THE INFLUENCE OF FACIAL EMOTIONAL CLUES ON THE INTENTION OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
NARE HAROYAN
PhD student at the Shanghai Normal University,CHINA 
 
 
 




People are extremely sensitive to nonverbal cues. Understanding and effectively using non-verbal emotional signals are crucial in every sector of our society. Certainly, an understanding of nonverbal signals prepares us for effectively communicating across cultures. As an essence of different cultures, nonverbal cues carry a particular meaning recognized by people sharing communication. In terms of intercultural communication, nonverbal abilities allow everyday interaction. 

In this study , we want to reveal, how different cultures react to happy or angry facial expressions and how it affects to their intention of approaching or avoiding to other culture. 

The present study combined direct and averted eye directions with different factors, such us culture, facial expression , gender , and tone of the voice, to taste, if it has influence on emotion judgment or if it is important in intercultural communication. 

The current study also wants to find out the importance of vocal cues on the intention of communication, under the circumstances when the meaning is not understandable. 

Facial emotional cues have often be studied independently or as coordinated patterns of two behaviors with temporal overlap: facial expression with gaze interaction, facial expression with tone of the voice. Anyhow, at present there is a lack of existing research, conducting the combined effects of facial emotional cues together in the contest of intercultural communication. 

This study provides information about the combined effects of facial emotional clues ( facial expression, gaze interaction and tone of the voice) during cross-cultural communication. It is well known, that during the communication, especially during international communication, where people can hardly use the same language, or can have some difficulties to clearly understand each other, nonverbal cues can play crucial role. Additionally, in human communication, nonverbal cues, like facial expression, tone of the voice and gaze interaction occurs simultaneously. In this respect, in our paper we focus on revealing the important effects of facial emotional cues on the intention of intercultural communication. 

It is noteworthy to mention, that this problem has never been tested before.To our knowledge, this is the first paper which focuses its attention on the combination of the facial emotional clues on intercultural communication. 

1. We think, that there is a cultural difference while judging emotion and that judgment is based on several factors, such us facial expression, tone of the voice, culture, gender and gaze. 

2. We also propose that above mentioned factors in turn influence on the intention of cross-cultural communication
In this paper we want to test, how different culture react to the expressive emotion of other culture under the circumstances, when the vocal meaning is not understandable, and cultural, emotional and gender factors exist, how the mentioned factors can influence the intention of intercultural communication and if the way different cultures judge the emotion further will affect their intention of approaching to other culture. 

Totally 90 subjects from three different cultures (Chinese, European, African) participated on the behavioral experiments. Participants viewed characters varying in terms of culture, gender, facial expression, tone of the voice and gaze interaction. 

In the present paper we proposed that the difference of facially expressive emotional judgment between cultures is based on facial, vocal, cultural, gender and gaze factors. Our results from the emotional judgment tasks support the mentioned assumption, by showing the important role of facial expression, tone of the voice, culture and gender on the emotion recognition between different cultures. Although the hypothesis about facial, vocal , cultural and gender factors was supported, however our results with regard to gaze was only partially consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate, that how different culture react to the emotion of other culture further will affect to their intention ofapproachability. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that facial emotional clues, such as facial expression, tone of the voice as well as gender and culture influence on the intention of cross-cultural communication. To conclude, our most noticeable findings from the current research are as follows: firstly, facial and vocal expressive emotion judgment is much higher when face and voice are presented in congruent condition for Chinese, European and African participants, which is consistent with the previous studies. Secondly, males facial and vocal expressions are judged more accurately than females ones. Thirdly, happy facial and vocal expressions are more approachable than angry ones. Finally, for the first time our research indicates, that European culture is more approachable and Chinese culture is least approachable. 

In this review we hope we have convinced the reader that emotional judgment difference between culture is based on several factors, which in their turn influence on their intention of intercultural communication.
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1618 reads | 22.12.2014
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